The Financial Services Industry
Financial services are all the businesses that help individuals and businesses manage money, from accepting deposits to making loans to investing in securities. They also include insurance companies and providers of the critical financial utilities that support these activities. Thousands of depository institutions, brokers, asset managers, investment advisors, credit and financing organizations, and other such entities comprise the financial services industry.
In addition to allowing people to directly save and invest their funds, financial services also redistribute risk and add value by aggregating money from many savers into investments and loans. The profits that financial services earn are based on the interest rate spread between the amount they pay to depositors and what they charge borrowers. They also make money by providing credit cards and by administering payment systems such as electronic fund transfers, cheques, and debit and credit card payments.
These services are important for economic growth because they promote spending, savings and investment. By channeling cash to the right people at the right time, they create a positive feedback loop: Spending stimulates production and saving, which in turn leads to more investment, and so on. In the long run, this can lead to economic prosperity for all.
Many countries are pursuing policies to expand access to financial services, including through digital technology. As a result, millions of people have gained access to banking services such as mobile money and credit cards, while a growing number are moving from cash transactions entirely to digital. This is a major change for these populations, which may have been historically excluded or marginalized by a lack of access to formal financial services.
The industry is fragmented, with thousands of for-profit and not-for-profit financial service providers operating in the world. Some, like banks and credit unions, accept direct savings from the public while others offer a wider range of investment products, such as mutual funds. Still others focus on lending, such as mortgage lenders or hire purchase finance companies. The sector also includes private equity firms, which buy and sell shares in companies and take on the risk of a company’s performance.
Getting a job in the field can be challenging, as it requires a large network of contacts and considerable interpersonal skills. Some positions also require a degree, although not all do. Many people get into the industry through internships and entry-level jobs that allow them to learn on the job. The sector is increasingly embracing new technologies, such as digital payments and data analytics, and some companies are even beginning to offer their own financial services, such as Apple with its Apple Card and Amazon with Amazon Pay. This is a sign of the increasing sophistication and competition within the industry. It is also a reflection of consumer demand for greater choice and control over their finances. The sector is highly regulated to ensure consumer protection and integrity. As a result, it is a good place for entrepreneurs to find opportunities.